Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) Ready-to-Dilute Staining Kit for identifying Degenerating Neurons

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Catalog Number
TR-100

    Product Info

  • Product Name Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) Ready-to-Dilute Staining Kit for identifying Degenerating Neurons
  • Product Description google The causes and effects of neuronal degeneration are of major interest to a wide variety of neuroscientists. Paralleling this growing interest is an increasing number of methods applicable to the detection of neuronal degeneration. Fluoro-Jade C stains all degenerating neurons regardless of specific insult or mechanism of cell death. Fluoro-Jade C exhibits the greatest signal to background ratio, as well as the highest resolution. This translates to a stain of maximal contrast and affinity for degenerating neurons. This makes it ideal for localising not only degenerating nerve cell bodies but also distal dendrites, axons and terminals. The dye is highly resistant to fading and is compatible with virtually all histological processing and staining protocols.
  • Alternative Names FJC
  • Application(s) FC, ICC, IHC-Frozen, IHC-Paraffin-embedded
  • Specificity Degenerating neurons, and neuronal degeneration. There is no specific staining in normal healthy brain. Note: Some researchers under some conditions report blood vessel staining with Fluoro Jade. This may be because Fluoro Jade is an analogue of eosin (which stains blood cells). In general, good perfusion and preparation of the tissue should help prevent blood vessel staining but it may not be possible to eliminate it entirely. In our experience it is generally possible to distinguish neuronal from blood vessels staining by eye.
  • Species Reactivity Human, Mouse, Other Mammals (Predicted), Rat
  • Concentration 10X
  • Purity Description Purified
  • Regulatory Status For research use only.

    Specifications

  • Product Description The causes and effects of neuronal degeneration are of major interest to a wide variety of neuroscientists. Paralleling this growing interest is an increasing number of methods applicable to the detection of neuronal degeneration. Fluoro-Jade C stains all degenerating neurons regardless of specific insult or mechanism of cell death. Fluoro-Jade C exhibits the greatest signal to background ratio, as well as the highest resolution. This translates to a stain of maximal contrast and affinity for degenerating neurons. This makes it ideal for localising not only degenerating nerve cell bodies but also distal dendrites, axons and terminals. The dye is highly resistant to fading and is compatible with virtually all histological processing and staining protocols.
  • Related Products Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) Powder for identifying Degenerating Neurons
    Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) Powder for identifying Degenerating Neurons
  • Application(s) FC, ICC, IHC-Frozen, IHC-Paraffin-embedded
  • Application Details The Fluoro-Jade C 'Ready to Dilute' (RTD) Staining Kit provides an easy to use assortment of Fluoro-Jade C, DAPI, sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate in liquid form. Following our detailed protocol, Fluoro-Jade C labelled degenerating neurons are visualised with blue light excitation while DAPI counter stained cell nuclei are visualised with ultra-violet illumination. The Fluoro-Jade C Staining Kit can be used on all kinds of preserved tissues, including fresh-frozen, paraformaldehyde or formalin fixed, and formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
  • Target Degenerating neurons
  • Specificity Degenerating neurons, and neuronal degeneration. There is no specific staining in normal healthy brain. Note: Some researchers under some conditions report blood vessel staining with Fluoro Jade. This may be because Fluoro Jade is an analogue of eosin (which stains blood cells). In general, good perfusion and preparation of the tissue should help prevent blood vessel staining but it may not be possible to eliminate it entirely. In our experience it is generally possible to distinguish neuronal from blood vessels staining by eye.
  • Target Host Species Human
  • Species Reactivity Human, Mouse, Other Mammals (Predicted), Rat
  • Ex/Em Max FJC visualization is accomplished using blue light or a 488 nm Laser. Excitation Peak: 495 nm Emission Peak: 521 nm Filter system for visualizing: Fluorescein/FITC
  • Detection Method Fluorescence
  • Kit Components Materials provided:

    Sodium Hydroxide, Solution A (Dilute 1:10 prior to use) - 20/40 mL (TR-100-FJT/TR-100-FJ)
    Potassium Permanganate, Solution B (Dilute 1:10 prior to use) - 20/40 mL (TR-100-FJT/TR-100-FJ)
    Fluoro-Jade C, Solution C (Dilute 1:10 prior to use) - 20/40 mL (TR-100-FJT/TR-100-FJ)
    DAPI, Solution D (Add to diluted Fluoro-Jade C) - 20/40 mL (TR-100-FJT/TR-100-FJ)

    Equipment and Reagents required:

    Gelatin coated microscope slides
    Staining dishes/Coplin jars
    Cover slips
    DPX mounting media
    Slide warmer
    Convection oven
    Distilled water
    Ethanol
    Xylene

    Number of slides processed:

    The actual number of slides processed by this kit will depend largely upon the vessel that is used to incubate the slides. If using a standard Coplin Jar, its capacity is 50 mL and typically holds 5 slides per jar. If using such a device, then 80-100 slides stained per 50 ml of working solution (or, 5 ml of stock solution) could be processed in one day. Note the diluted dye is NOT stable and will not store overnight. It is best to use freshly diluted dye each time an experimental batch is started.

    Final working concentrations of FJC: 0.0001%
    Final working concentration of KMnO4: 0.06%
  • Purity Description Purified
  • Format The reagents in the Fluoro Jade kit (10X) are all supplied in a liquid format and are ready-to-dilute.
  • Concentration 10X
  • Reconstitution Instructions Dilute solutions as directed in the protocol instructions. Sometimes small precipitates may be present in the stock or diluted solutions. Complete mixing of the diluted solutions usually dissolves the precipitates. The precipitates, if not removed, do not usually cause any difficulties if the washing steps are followed as instructed. Optional: For entirely clean solutions Biosensis recommends filtering the diluted solution though ethanol and NaOH compatible syringe or vacuum filter devices prior to contact with tissue slides.
  • Storage Instructions The unopened kit can be stored for up to 6 months at 2-8ºC after the date of receipt. The kit and components should be stored protected from light. Diluted FJC dye solutions are not stable and should be used within 4 hours of making. The other diluted solutions can be reused and stored for up to 48 hours if refrigerated and protected from light. Best results require freshly diluted solutions. We recommend using aseptic techniques when handling the reagents to avoid bacterial growth and contamination.

    The FJC Ready to dilute kit is shipped ambient and stable at room temperature during transport. Refrigerate upon arrival, do not freeze.
  • Batch Number Please see item label.
  • Expiration Date Unopened kit 6 months at 2-8ºC protected from light. See Storage instructions for working solutions recommendations.
  • Alternative Names FJC
  • Shipping Temperature 2-8°C (on cold packs)
  • UNSPSC CODE 60103920
  • Regulatory Status For research use only.

    Images, Protocols & SDS

  • Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) staining (green) of degenerating neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in old diabetic rats. Blue: DAPI nuclear stain. Picture courtesy of Dr. Wang and colleagues. Results of this study were published in Wang S. et al. (2020), Geroscience, PMID: 32696219.

  • Double exposure using combined blue and ultraviolet epi-fluorescent illumination of the superficial layers of the cingulated rat cortex exposed to kainic acid. Layer I contains conspicuous Fluoro-Jade C positive degenerating axon terminals. Layer II contains densely packed DAPI-positive viable granule cells. Layer III contains a mixture of Fluoro-Jade C positive denegerating pyramidal cells and DAPI-positive viable pyramidal cells. Photo is courtesy of Dr. Larry Schmued.


    Triple exposure combining ultraviolet, blue and green light epi-fluorescent illumination (10X) of rat hippocampus exposed to kainic acid. The section was triple labeled with Fluoro-Jade C and DAPI staining combined with GFAP immunohistochemistry. The section reveals extensive green Fluoro-Jade C positive neuronal degeneration throughout the entire CA-1 region of the hippocampus. The underlying blue viable positive granule cells of the dentate gyrus are only DAPI positive. Both regions exhibit red GFAP positive hypertrophied astrocytes. Photo is courtesy of Dr. Larry Schmued.

  • Kit Protocol

    TR-100-FJ_FJT_as_at_November2020.pdf

  • SDS Link

    SDS_MSDS_ TR-100-FJ_TR-100-FJT_2-17-2019.pdf

    Citations & References

  • Specific References Total Number of References: 169

    Latest Publications (2021-2023):

    Agrawal RR et al. (2022) "Alzheimer’s-Associated Upregulation of Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes After Traumatic Brain Injury" Cell Mol Neurobiol. [Epub ahead of print] . Application: IF. Species: Mouse

    Choi HJ et al. (2022) "The new insight into the inflammatory response following focused ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption" Fluids Barriers CNS. 19(1):103 . Application: IF. Species: Mouse

    Shen H et al. (2022) "GRK5 Deficiency in the Hippocampus Leads to Cognitive Impairment via Abnormal Microglial Alterations" Mol Neurobiol. [Epub ahead of print] . Application: IF. Species: Mouse

    Kawabata S et al. (2022) "Association of Gut Microbiome with Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: an Experimental Study" Transl Stroke Res. [Epub ahead of print] . Application: IF. Species: Rat

    Choi H et al. (2022) "Methylene Blue Delivery Mediated by Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption Reduces Neural Damage and Amyloid-Beta Plaques by AQP-4 Upregulation" Biomedicines. 10(12):3191 . Application: IF. Species: Mouse

    Liu Y et al. (2022) "Inhibition of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor EP3 Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis Partially by Modulating p38MAPK/FOXO3/Mul1/Mfn2 Pathway after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats" Oxid Med Cell Longev. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Zhang Z et al. (2022) "Targeting CCL5 signaling attenuates neuroinflammation after seizure" CNS Neurosci Ther. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Yu Z et al. (2022) "Icaritin inhibits neuroinflammation in a rat cerebral ischemia model by regulating microglial polarization through the GPER–ERK–NF-κB signaling pathway" Mol Med. 28(1):142. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Jiao D et al. (2022) "Quercetin alleviates subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury via inhibiting ferroptosis in the rat model" Anat Rec (Hoboken). [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Gao T et al. (2022) "NS1619 Alleviate Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Induced Brain Injury by Regulating BKca Channel and Nrf2/HO-1/NF-ĸB Pathway" Oxid Med Cell Longev. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Wang J et al. (2022) "Inhibition of ferroptosis protects sepsis-associated encephalopathy" Cytokine. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Gao J et al. (2022) "Secukinumab alleviates cognitive impairment by attenuating oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via the IL-17RA/AKT/ERK1/2 pathway in a rat model of sepsis" Exp Neurol. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Deng X et al. (2022) "Suppressive role of lovastatin in intracerebral hemorrhage through repression of autophagy" Metab Brain Dis. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Fernandez N et al. (2022) "Aging is associated with lower neuroactive steroids and worsened outcomes following cerebral ischemia in male mice" Endocrinology. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Wu M et al. (2022) "VEGF regulates the blood-brain barrier through MMP-9 in a rat model of traumatic brain injury" Exp. Ther. Med. 24:728. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Qian S et al. (2022) "Podoplanin neutralization reduces thrombo-inflammation in experimental ischemic stroke by inhibiting interferon/caspase-1/GSDMD in microglia" Ann Transl Med. 10(18):979. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Li L et al. (2022) "A selective degeneration of cholinergic neurons mediated by NRADD in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model" Cell Insight. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Karino K et al. (2022) "Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase epsilon contributes to neuropsychiatric manifestations in lupus-prone mice through microglial activation" Arthritis Rheumatol. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Chen J et al. (2022) "Flufenamic acid improves survival and neurologic outcome after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice" J Neuroinflammation. 19(1):214 . Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Zou Y et al. (2022) "Learning and memory impairment and transcriptomic profile in hippocampus of offspring after maternal fructose exposure during gestation and lactation" Food Chem Toxicol. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Jin P et al. (2022) "Aprepitant attenuates NLRC4-dependent neuronal pyroptosis via NK1R/PKCδ pathway in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage" J Neuroinflammation. 19(10):198. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Koike-Kumagai M et al. (2022) "Sirolimus relieves seizures and neuropsychiatric symptoms via changes of microglial polarity in tuberous sclerosis complex model mice" Neuropharmacology. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Wang D et al. (2022) "Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment attenuates repetitive mild traumatic brain injury-induced persistent cognitive deficits via suppressing ferroptosis" Neuroinflammation. 19(1):185. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Seo Y et al. (2022) "Mesenchymal stem cells target microglia via galectin-1 production to rescue aged mice from olfactory dysfunction" Biomed Pharmacother. 153:113347. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Duan R et al. (2022) "Recurrent de novo single point variant on the gene encoding Na+/K+ pump results in epilepsy" Prog Neurobiol. 216:102310. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Liu P et al. (2022) "Suppression of phosphodiesterase IV enzyme by Roflumilast ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in aged rats after sevoflurane anesthesia via PKA-CREB and MEK/ERK pathways" Eur J Neurosci. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Boucher ML et al. (2022) "Titrating the Translational Relevance of a Low-Level Repetitive Head Impact Model" Front Neurol. 13:857654. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Qian L et al. (2022) "Interleukin-35 attenuates blood-brain barrier dysfunction caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibiting brain endothelial cell injury" Ann Transl Med. 10.21037. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Buentello DC et al. (2022) "Use of standard U-bottom and V-bottom well plates to generate neuroepithelial embryoid bodies" PLoS One. 17(5): e0262062. Application: IF. Species: Human.

    Jin P et al. (2022) "Activation of LRP6 with HLY78 Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis via GSK3β/Sirt1/PGC-1α Pathway after ICH" Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022: 7542468. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Wang J et al. (2022) "Irisin protects against sepsis-associated encephalopathy by suppressing ferroptosis via activation of the Nrf2/GPX4 signal axis" Free Radic Biol Med. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Tang T et al. (2022) "Ginkgetin Promotes M2 Polarization of Microglia and Exert Neuroprotection in Ischemic Stroke via Modulation of PPARγ Pathway" Neurochem Res. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Zhang Z et al. (2022) "Inhibiting Microglia-Derived NLRP3 Alleviates Subependymal Edema and Cognitive Dysfunction in Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus after Intracerebral Hemorrhage via AMPK/Beclin-1 Pathway" Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Ren R et al. (2022) "Kynurenine/Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Modulates Mitochondria-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis in Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage" Antioxid Redox Signal. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Deforzh E et al. (2022) "Promoter and enhancer RNAs regulate chromatin reorganization and activation of miR-10b/HOXD locus, and neoplastic transformation in glioma" Mol Cell. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Human, Mouse.

    Chen X et al. (2022) "Mechanism of Baicalein in Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage by Inhibiting the ROS/NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway" Inflammation. 45(2):590-602. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Komatsu A et al. (2022) "Ammonia induces amyloidogenesis in astrocytes by promoting amyloid precursor protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum" J Bio; Chem. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Jin P et al. (2022) "Activation of LRP6 with HLY78 Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis via GSK3 β/Sirt1/PGC-1 α Pathway after ICH" Oxid Med Cell Longev. 7542468. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Hong Y et al. (2022) "Ultrasound stimulation improves inflammatory resolution, neuroprotection, and functional recovery after spinal cord injury" Sci Rep. 12(1):3636. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Li J et al. (2022) "Inhibition of LRRK2-Rab10 Pathway Improves Secondary Brain Injury After Surgical Brain Injury in Rats" Front Surg. 8:749310. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Yamashima T et al. (2022) "Hydroxynonenal Causes Lysosomal and Autophagic Failure in the Monkey." J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism. 12:529. Application: IF. Species: Monkey.

    Salvadores N et al. (2022) "Aβ oligomers trigger necroptosis-mediated neurodegeneration via microglia activation in Alzheimer's disease." Acta Neuropathol Commun. 10(1):31. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Shi M et al. (2022) "Downregulation of TREM2/NF-кB signaling may damage the blood-brain barrier and aggravate neuronal apoptosis in experimental rats with surgically injured brain." Brain Res Bull. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Zhao Y et al. (2022) "ATAD3A oligomerization promotes neuropathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease models." Nat Commun. 13(1):1121. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Fan X et al. (2022) "Inhibiting Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3 Attenuates Brain Damage During Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Regulating nNOS/NO and Oxidative Stress." Front Neurosci. 16:838621. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Yu S et al. (2022) "BMS-470539 Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis via MC1R/cAMP/PKA/Nurr1 Signaling Pathway in a Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Rat Model." Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022:4054938. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Kim EC et al. (2021) "Spontaneous seizure and memory loss in mice expressing an epileptic encephalopathy variant in the calmodulin-binding domain of Kv7.2." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 118(51):e2021265118. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Zhang Y et al. (2021) "GSK-3β inhibition elicits a neuroprotection by restoring lysosomal dysfunction in neurons via facilitation of TFEB nuclear translocation after ischemic stroke." Brain Res. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Kondoh D et al. (2021) "Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) with a high prevalence of hydrocephalus without clinical symptoms." Neuropathology. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Iwasa K et al. (2021) "A peripheral lipid sensor GPR120 remotely contributes to suppression of PGD2-microglia-provoked neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the mouse hippocampus." J Neuroinflammation. 18(1):304. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Rodriguez-Masso SR et al. (2021) "The Bradykinin B2 Receptor Agonist (NG291) Causes Rapid Onset of Transient Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption Without Evidence of Early Brain Injury." Front Neurosci. 15:791709. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Li N et al. (2021) "Postcooling But Not Precooling Benefits Motor Recovery by Suppressing Cell Death after Surgical Spinal Cord Injury in Rats." World Neurosurg. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Estrada H et al. (2021) "High-resolution fluorescence-guided transcranial ultrasound mapping in the live mouse brain." Sci Adv. 7(50):eabi5464. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Gu R et al. (2021) "Rh-CXCL-12 Attenuates Neuronal Pyroptosis after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Regulating the CXCR4/NLRP1 Pathway." Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021:6966394. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Huang L et al. (2021) "Docosahexaenoic acid reduces hypoglycemia-induced neuronal necroptosis via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ/nuclear factor-κB pathway." Brain Res. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Yaguchi A et al. (2021) "Efficient protein incorporation and release by a jigsaw-shaped self-assembling peptide hydrogel for injured brain regeneration." Nat Commun. 12(1):6623. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Liu Y et al. (2021) "Neuroprotection of minocycline by inhibition of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer expression following intracerebral hemorrhage in mice." Neurosci Lett. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Lam V et al. (2021) "Synthesis of human amyloid restricted to liver results in an Alzheimer disease-like neurodegenerative phenotype." PLoS Biol. 19(9):e3001358. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Wu Z et al. (2021) "Melibiose Confers a Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Ameliorating Autophagy Flux via Facilitation of TFEB Nuclear Translocation in Neurons." Life. 11(9), 948. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Fang Y et al. (2021) "Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide attenuates mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats." Free Radic Biol Med. 174:236-248. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Huan PS et al. (2021) "3,6'-Dithiopomalidomide Ameliorates Hippocampal Neurodegeneration, Microgliosis and Astrogliosis and Improves Cognitive Behaviors in Rats with a Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury." Int J Mol Sci. 22(15):8276. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Han M et al. (2021) "Localized Modification of Water Molecule Transport After Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Rat Brain." Front Neurosci. 15:685977. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Gong Y et al. (2021) "Inhibition of the p‑SPAK/p‑NKCC1 signaling pathway protects the blood‑brain barrier and reduces neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of surgical brain injury." Mol Med Rep. 24(4):717. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Zhu L et al. (2021) "Neuroprotective effects of salidroside on ageing hippocampal neurons and naturally ageing mice via the PI3K/Akt/TERT pathway." Phytother Res. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Huang Y et al. (2021) "Kisspeptin-54 attenuates oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats via GPR54/ARRB2/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway." Free Radic Biol Med. 171:99-111. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Gong Y et al. (2021) "Inhibition of the NKCC1/NF-κB Signaling Pathway Decreases Inflammation and Improves Brain Edema and Nerve Cell Apoptosis in an SBI Rat Model." Front Mol Neurosci. 14:641993. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Caron NS et al. (2021) "Mutant Huntingtin Is Cleared from the Brain via Active Mechanisms in Huntington Disease." J Neurosci. 41(4):780-796. Application: IF. Species: Human.

    Liu L et al. (2021) "A Novel Netrin-1-Derived Peptide Enhances Protection against Neuronal Death and Mitigates of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice." Int J Mol Sci. 22(9):4829. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Zalewska K et al. (2021) "Corticosterone Administration Alters White Matter Tract Structure and Reduces Gliosis in the Sub-Acute Phase of Experimental Stroke." Int J Mol Sci. 22(13):6693. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Agrawal RRet al. (2021) "Neurometabolic Alterations After Traumatic Brain Injury: Links to Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes and Alzheimer’s Disease." PhD Thesis. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Zhou H et al. (2021) "AXL kinase-mediated astrocytic phagocytosis modulates outcomes of traumatic brain injury." J Neuroinflammation. 18(1):154. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Ousta A et al. (2021) "Microglial Activation and Neurological Outcomes in a Murine Model of Cardiac Arrest." Neurocrit Care. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Horinokita H et al. (2021) "Possible involvement of progranulin in the protective effect of elastase inhibitor on cerebral ischemic injuries of neuronal and glial cells." Mol Cell Neurosci. 113:103625. Application: IF. Species: Human.

    Ho MH et al. (2021) "CCL5 via GPX1 activation protects hippocampal memory function after mild traumatic brain injury." Redox Biol. 46:102067. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Lian C et al. (2021) "Pentraxin 3 secreted by human adipose-derived stem cells promotes dopaminergic neuron repair in Parkinson's disease via the inhibition of apoptosis." FASEB J. 35(7):e21748. Application: IF. Species: Mouse.

    Li Z et al. (2021) "The combination of deferoxamine and minocycline strengthens neuroprotective effect on acute intracerebral hemorrhage in rats." Neurol Res. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF. Species: Rat.

    Zhou K et al. (2021) "Dihydrolipoic acid enhances autophagy and alleviates neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats." Exp Neurol. 342:113752. Application: IF.

    Asuni GP et al. (2021) "Neuronal apoptosis induced by morphine withdrawal is mediated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor." J Neurochem. [Epub ahead of print]. Application: IF.

    Deng S et al. (2021) "Albumin Reduces Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis via the ERK/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats." Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2021, Article ID 8891373. Application: IF.

    Wu MY et al. (2021) "Possible mechanisms of the PERK pathway on neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of surgical brain injury." Am J Transl Res. 13(2):732-742. Application: IF.

    Cai G et al. (2021) "Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome miR-542-3p suppresses inflammation and prevents cerebral infarction." Stem Cell Res Ther. 12(1)2. Application: IF.

    Xu W et al. (2021) "Melanocortin 1 receptor attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage by controlling mitochondrial metabolism via AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1_ pathway in rats." Theranostics. 11(2):522-39. Application: IF.